Early Contingency Learning
- Social-emotional consequences of
response-contingent learning opportunities
Carl J. Dunst, Ph.D.
Bridges, Volume 1, Number 1
Findings from this synthesis indicate that response-contingent learning opportunities,
where the relationship between a child's behavior and the consequences of this behavior
is clearly detectable, produce the greatest amount of positive social responding and
attenuate negative social responding. Implications for practice are described in terms
of the environmental arrangements most likely to optimize the positive social-emotional
consequences of response-contingent learning opportunities.
YES! I made it happen!
Bottomlines, Volume 1, Number 1
¡Sí! ¡Hice que pasará!
Spanish Bottomlines, Volume 1, Number 1
Latency to learn in contingency
studies of young children with disabilities or developmental delays
Melanie Hutto, Ph.D.
Bridges, Volume 1, Number 2
Findings from this synthesis indicate that whereas children without
disabilities learn a contingency almost immediately, children with
or at risk for delays have a latency to learn the relationship
between a behavior and its consequences. Results indicate the need to
consider this latency when using response-contingent learning
opportunities to promote behavior capabilities of young children with
No rush! Research proves it pays to be patient
Bottomlines, Volume 1, Number 2
¡No hay apuro! Las investigaciones comprueban que vale el ser paciente
Spanish Bottomlines, Volume 1, Number 2
Relative Effectiveness of Episodic and Conjugate Reinforcement on Child Operant Learning
Carl J. Dunst, Ph.D., Andrea J. Storck, B.S., Melanie D. Hutto, Ph.D., & Donna Snyder, B.A.
Bridges, Volume 4, Number 3
The relative effectiveness of episodic and conjugate reinforcement on child operant learning
constituted the focus of this practice-based research synthesis. The synthesis included 35
studies of 672 participants (573 typically developing children and 99 children with disabilities
or delays) involved in either episodic (N = 19) or conjugate (N = 16) reinforcement studies.
Comparisons of the time required to double the rate of operant responding indicated that
episodic reinforcement was relatively more effective in producing an operationally defined ned
level of operant learning, although both types of reinforcement were effective in increasing
operant responding. Implications for practice are described in terms of the types of reinforcement
best suited for promoting contingency awareness and mastery.
Influences of Contingent Touch on Infant Behavior
Tracy Masiello, Ph.D.
Bridges, Volume 4, Number 6
The influences of contingent touch on infant behavior were examined in seven studies of
healthy full-term infants. The studies included 186 children, half of whom received contingent
touch and half who served as control participants. Contingent touch is characterized by
tactile stimulation provided by an adult in response to a specific infant behavior. Findings
from this practice-based research synthesis indicate that contingent touch can increase infants’
motor responses, promote positive affective behavior, and decrease negative affective
behavior. Implications for practice indicate that touch is one type of response-contingent
behavior that parents can use to promote the acquisition of infant motor, social-emotional,
and other behaviors.
More than "just a touch" How contingent touch affects infants' learning and behavior
Bottomlines, Volume 4, Number 6